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Overview In 2020 Netherlands was the number 17 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 6 in total exports, the number 8 in total imports, the number 12 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 22 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Netherlands are Refined Petroleum ($29.7B), Broadcasting Equipment ($19.3B), Packaged Medicaments ($18.8B), Computers ($13.7B), and Photo Lab Equipment ($11.7B), exporting mostly to Germany ($105B), Belgium ($56.1B), France ($43.7B), United Kingdom ($40.3B), and United States ($23.9B).

In 2020, Netherlands was the world's biggest exporter of Other live plants, cuttings and slips; mushroom spawn ($4.4B), Cut Flowers ($4.01B), Malt Extract ($3.4B), Recreational Boats ($2.81B), and Coal Tar Oil ($2.52B)

Imports The top imports of Netherlands are Crude Petroleum ($32.1B), Refined Petroleum ($23.8B), Broadcasting Equipment ($21.9B), Computers ($14.7B), and Packaged Medicaments ($13.5B), importing mostly from Germany ($84.8B), China ($64.9B), United States ($42.7B), Belgium ($37.1B), and United Kingdom ($25.1B).

In 2020, Netherlands was the world's biggest importer of Industrial Fatty Acids, Oils and Alcohols ($5.73B), Cocoa Beans ($1.78B), Vehicle Bodies (including cabs) for the motor vehicles (8701 to 8705) ($1.55B), Alcohol > 80% ABV ($1.25B), and Inedible Fats and Oils ($1.14B)

Location Netherlands borders Belgium and Germany by land and Saint Kitts and Nevis, United Kingdom, Venezuela, and Anguilla by sea.

March, 2022

Historical Data

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Top Export (2020): Refined Petroleum, $29.7B

Top Destination (2020): Germany, $84.8B

In 2020, Netherlands exported a total of $511B, making it the number 6 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Netherlands have changed by $77.6B from $434B in 2015 to $511B in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Refined Petroleum ($29.7B), Broadcasting Equipment ($19.3B), Packaged Medicaments ($18.8B), Computers ($13.7B), and Photo Lab Equipment ($11.7B). The most common destination for the exports of Netherlands are Germany ($105B), Belgium ($56.1B), France ($43.7B), United Kingdom ($40.3B), and United States ($23.9B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2020)

  • France, $5.43B (+ 14.2%)
  • Chinese Taipei, $2.26B (+ 47.1%)
  • China, $2.01B (+ 14.8%)

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Netherlands has a high level of specialization in Bulbs and Roots (24.6), Cut Flowers (15.6), Other live plants, cuttings and slips; mushroom spawn (14.3), Composite Paper (13.4), and Cocoa Powder (9.29). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Netherlands observed and expected exports in each product.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Netherlands according to the relatedness index, are Cobalt Oxides and Hydroxides (0.45), Bovine, Sheep, and Goat Fat (0.43), Flax Fibers (0.43), Other Fermented Beverages (0.42), and Non-Iron and Steel Slag, Ash and Residues (0.42). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Netherlands is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Netherlands. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Netherlands exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years Netherlands's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨11th to the 22nd⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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